Aerobic exercise (endurance) has benefits for the cardiovascular system and lungs.

It improves physical condition and respiratory capacity, it lowers blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity, it reverses dyslipidemia by elevating HDL, and it burns fat at low pace of (60-70% of VO2max).

As a result, heart rate lowers, because heart beats under economy since it pumps more efficiently blood per beat.

It’s also important because it establishes the so called collateral circulation, meaning a vast vascular network that surrounds myocardium and provides oxygen supply.

Cardio is capable for cardiac remodeling and improving ventricular volume, thus improving cardiac output and ejection fraction.

Endurance athletes have larger and thinner ventricular walls and chambers, unlike bodybuilders and power lifters that have thicker walls with smaller cavities.

This is based on resistance training and AAS/GH/IGF1 use.

When it’s done at higher intensity (80-90%) then most of the calories are burned from muscle glycogen stores. However what matters in the bottom line is the total amount of calories, yet high intensity has benefits for boosting BMR [such as in High-intensity interval training (HIIT)].  

The fact with HIIT is it requires muscle glycogen stores; therefore it’s highly unlikely to be done first thing in the morning.

Unlike prolonged cardio at low pace, HIIT can increase testosterone (through anaerobic part). The difference is that aerobic activity lasts much longer, because it utilizes fat, unlike anaerobic and glycogen stores (low pace <70% MHR/VO2max).

Best place to do cardio is at the beach, where air density is maximum and sea breeds are full in iodine from sea.

Moreover resistance in sand is much greater, while resistance in walking into water resembles weight training. 

Best moment for cardio is first thing in the morning on an empty stomach, in order to maximize fat burning.

The reason is the low blood glucose levels, reflecting in low insulin and high glucagon, plus the lower muscle glycogen stores. It is preferable to use BCAAs in order to prevent muscle catabolism plus liquid carnitine. For even better we may use the ECA stack (20mg ephedrine, 200mg caffeine, and 300mg aspirin).

Ideal form of cardio is the jogging, but for those who suffer from knee injuries, elliptical machine seems the best. Step master and uphill walking is best for legs and glutes, especially the rear area.


Bodybuilders cannot run for different reasons: 

First of all they carry extra weight on their bodies that affects heart and skeleton too.

Second their body has greater demands for oxygen supply, that heart struggles to provide efficiently (BMI is reversely related to VO2max).

Third because bodybuilders have trained their white fast twitch muscle fibers and not the red slow ones, ideal for endurance. 

Fourth because bodybuilders have developed thick and smaller ventricles, unable to pump efficiently blood through their pumping.

Swimming is an excellent for of cardiovascular exercise, because it provides conditions that resemble zero gravity, therefore protecting joints. Moreover it stimulates almost all muscles, making it of high caloric expenditure.

 WEIGHT training

Resistance training or weight lifting has several benefits:

–                      improvement of  muscle strength

–                      reduction of fatty tissue

–                      fighting osteoporosis

–                      stabilizing serum glucose and insulin levels as a result of it

–                      prevention of  metabolic syndrome thus fighting against diabetes mellitus type II (non-insulin dependent)

–                      improvement of balance and neuromuscular conjunction

–                      improvement of  body composition and shaping by the reverse triangle V taper

–                      better anabolic environment through increased testosterone and hormonal environment by increasing testosterone and somatropin.

Weight training is the only way in order to shape and tone your body. You broaden your shoulder width and you sculpt your things, while making midsection to look tighter. In this way you give the illusion of the V shape. 

Muscle tissue burns calories even during sleep and stimulates BMR in the long term.

This is why bodybuilders feel hungrier than regular individuals with less muscle. By performing cardio we just burn calories the time we train, unlike weight lifting where metabolism is stimulated for the rest of the day. ardio doesn’t shape the body; you just lose fat and muscle. Therefore in other words, if you’re an apple shaped, you’ll remain as an apple.

 Intensity of weight training depends on three parameters:

–          the weight you lift (heavier loads bring higher intensity).

–          the time under tension (mostly the eccentric negative portion of execution), meaning how many seconds takes place for a whole repetition of full range motion.

–          the resting time between sets and exercises (heavy weights require more time for recovery and rest). So in case of muscle injuries or low carb diet, we can use lighter weights with very slow execution and strict form, while taking short breaks of 30” between them.


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